Revolutions in encouraged people in the colonies of the Americas. Taxes were high and colonial people had no voice in their own government. led a slave army revolt in the colony of Saint Domingue and took control of the government in 1796. Napoleon sent an army to reestablish rule, but they were defeated and the independent country of was born.
Revolution in Mexico
In 1810, a Mexican priest named Miguel Hidalgo inspired Mexicans to improve their own lives. He demanded equality for all people. He and a large group of Mexicans marched toward Mexico City, but they were stopped by and Hidalgo was executed. After other unsuccessful attempts, Agustín de Iturbide defeated the Spanish. Later he declared himself emperor of Mexico. Mexicans were still oppressed. , a former Spanish military officer, used his skills to win ’s independence. He trained his army to cross the Andes to surprise and defeat the Spanish army in . Chile became free of Spanish rule.
Bolívar and Independence
spent years fighting for the independence of South American countries such as Venezuela, Columbia, and Peru. Although he had been very successful in his efforts, he died an unhappy man because the people of Latin America were not free. They had exchanged Spanish rule for from their own countries.
Independence for Brazil.
When Napoleon invaded Portugal, and many Portuguese went to their colony in Brazil. King John was popular in Brazil and issued a decree making Brazil a part of Portugal rather than a colony. His son declared Brazil independent in 1822. Pedro II was a wise ruler but was overthrown when he freed the last of Brazil’s slaves. Brazil had become an independent country without a war.