suggested that Earth and all other planets moved around the sun. His theory was . Before Copernicus, scholars thought that was the center of the universe. , an Italian interested in mathematics, wondered if heavy objects fell faster that lighter ones. Aristotle had said they did. Galileo watched hailstones fall and decided Aristotle was wrong. A new age of thinking was born.
The Telescope and Space
Galileo improved the original Dutch telescope, sold it to the navy of Venice and became a rich man. Using his improved telescope, he became convinced that Copernicus’ heliocentric theory was right. When his findings were published, told him that his theory went against the teachings of the church. His books were banned, but he continued his studies. He was arrested and brought to trial in Rome. He gave up his heliocentric theory rather than to be tortured although he knew his findings were right. This was difficult because he was a scientist and also a religious man.
Laws of the Universe
’s study of gravity helped understand how a heliocentric universe worked. He developed a new area of called . Newton also developed the theory of motion and studied color and light. His work led to the invention of the and the improved telescope.
Advances in Science
René Descartes was born in France. He developed the scientific method and inductive reasoning. He used facts to form a theory and tested that theory by looking at additional facts. Inductive reasoning affected scientists in Europe and America throughout the 1700s. This period is called the Enlightenment. John Locke, an Enlightenment thinker, influenced the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.